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Introduction of refractory materials
(A) steelmaking system
The steelmaking system includes equipment such as converter, electric furnace, furnace refining furnace, ladle and tundish. In the electric furnace, the dry vibration material, the prefabricated or the cast-in-place or the lid: the triangular area and so on, have obtained the good use effect; in the converter and the electric furnace, the damage is generally used to repair the refractory paint, Hand-tipped, wet, dry or flame spray and slag splash protection. In the converter, the commonly used slag splashing furnace technology, furnace age can reach more than 10,000 times; furnace refining furnace more types, RH method and DH degassing device insertion tube lining, generally with high alumina refractory pouring Material poured into the whole, the service life of 20 to 80 times. Ladders and tundish are important ancillary equipment for steelmaking furnaces and are the largest thermal equipment for consumable refractories. In the past, ladle general use clay refractory bricks, high alumina refractory bricks, semi-silica bricks and wax stone bricks and other burning brick masonry, the service life of 10 to 70 times. When the use of ladle blowing or continuous ingot, due to the high temperature and long stay long time and other reasons, resulting in a sharp decline in package age. Therefore, countries on the lining material development is very important, but also made significant progress. Anshan Iron and Steel converter with 200t ladle, with aluminum and magnesium castable and self-flow material lining, the age of 95 and 80 times; Baosteel converter with 300t ladle, with high purity aluminum and magnesium castings lining, In about 260 times, the refractory unit consumption 1.78kg below; many steel mills are not more than 100t ladle, with new technology aluminum and magnesium refractory castable, the package age of 90 or so, the cost of steel per ton of steel 5.50 ~ $ 7.50. The middle bag lining with insulation board or magnesia coating, slag weir with mullite, aluminum magnesia and magnesia refractory castable production, to meet the technical requirements of continuous casting steel. Outside the furnace with the overall spray gun, for ladle blowing argon or ladle powder and so on. The slag above the site with high alumina refractory castable, slag line to the nozzle parts with low cement corundum refractory castable, vibration forming the overall package lining. Shanghai Baosteel with the gun blowing argon, argon blowing time per furnace for 3 ~ 5min, each gun life of about 50 furnace, that is 150 ~ 250min; Shougang for powder, the life of 30 ~ 55min.
(2) ironmaking system
Iron systems include sintering, coking and blast furnaces and ancillary equipment. Belt sintering machine ignition furnace with refractory plastic and clay combined with refractory castable on-site production, or with phosphoric acid refractory castable prefabricated block lifting, the service life of 3 to 6 years. When the use of wire-type ignition device, the furnace pressure down more, the furnace working conditions change, can be light high-strength refractory castable or refractory fiber and its products for lining, also get better results; coke oven top insulation , Cladding layer and the door and other parts with refractory castable watering, burner damage, the use of spray paint repair. In addition, CDQ equipment is also used heavy or lightweight refractory castable; blast furnace is a continuous production of iron equipment. Small blast furnace has been used aluminate cement and phosphorous high alumina refractory castable prefabricated block lifting masonry, now commonly used resin binder aluminum carbon brick masonry. Large blast furnace water wall with silicon carbide castable, the bottom of the cushion and the surrounding brick with refractory castable and silicon nitride filler, the lining is damaged with refractory pressure and refractory spray paint repair in order to extend the service life, So that the furnace age of 10 years or even 15 years. Blast furnace iron mouth generally with bulk-like Al2O3-SiC-C clay guns can be blocked, iron can be guaranteed iron stable, normal operation. Blast furnace out of the original hook with fire resistance ramming material, ditch material tons of iron consumption of about 1.1kg. Now with low porosity dense refractory pouring, once the amount of iron to reach about 100,000 t, a generation of ditch age cumulative iron about 90 million t, refractory tons of iron unit consumption is less than 0.38kg. At the same time, the flow of refractory castables and no-baked refractory castables, also in the blast furnace hook hook has also been applied hot blast furnace is a key auxiliary equipment for blast furnace. Medium and small blast furnace hot air furnace lining, useful refractory castable prefabricated block masonry. Hot air burner burner can be used refractory castable prefabricated block masonry or on-site watering, the dome is cast with castable work lining. Large-scale hot air furnace furnace body by the shell of the first layer of the bulk density of about 1.3g / cm3 light spray paint, the top is spray a layer of acid spray coating, the formation of the overall lining, the use of corundum refractory castables and other materials, on-site Watering, get a better use of the effect; torpedo-type molten iron tank and mixed iron furnace generally local or all use refractory castable, can also be used refractory spray repair, the use of better results.
(3) building materials system
Building materials systems include cement, glass and ceramics and other industrial sectors. Cement kiln lining with phosphorous high-alumina or magnesia and magnesia-chrome non-burning brick, the service life of 6 to 18 months, the local also use amorphous refractory. Jidong and Liuzhou and other large cement plant rotary kiln, refractory castable use of 19% to 35%, the main varieties of low cement refractory castable, aluminate cement refractory castable, silicon carbide refractory castable and insulation Castables, etc .; in the glass industry, float glass production line tin tank, is made of refractory castable. In addition, the glass pool kiln damage, the use of silicon repair materials for repair. New pool kiln insulation, the general use of silicon insulation castable; ceramic industry with kilns, sometimes with silicon carbide refractory castable and lightweight refractory castable.
(4) rolling system
Rolling system Industrial furnace types, the number of large, the use of temperature is generally below 1400 ℃, are flame furnace. The system furnace can be used as a lining of amorphous refractory, and achieved good economic results. Rolling furnace with refractory plastic for lining, long service life, such as Wuhan Iron and Steel large-scale walking beam furnace has been used for more than 25 years, is still in use. With clay combined with refractory castable overall watering lining, the service life is generally 4 to 10 years. For regenerative heating furnace, should use micro-expansion refractory castable for lining, has been used for more than 2 years, intact. Forged steel heating furnace is generally intermittent operation, the temperature changes and vibration, with brick lining, the use of 2 to 5 months, with the combination of refractory castable can be used for more than 2 years It is well known that the use of rolling furnace temperature < 1400 ℃ and intermittent operation, domestic and international production practice has proved that the lining material should be selected Al2O3 ≤ 65%, drying and 1400 ℃ after burning pressure were 20 ~ 25Mpa and not less than 60Mpa, can achieve the purpose of longevity. Because of the high content of aluminum and the strength of refractory castable, the thermal shock resistance is poor, easy to use when peeling and cracking, affecting its life.
(5) other industrial systems in the petrochemical industry
Tubular heating furnace with a bulk density of 0.5 ~ 1.0g / cm3 light refractory castable, with manual smear or spraying and other methods of construction, the service life of 5 years. The use of refractory spray coating lining, also obtained a better effect. Platinum reforming device and ethylene plant, but also a large number of applications of amorphous refractory. In particular, wear-resistant refractory castable in the platinum reforming device has been applied to cancel the heat-resistant steel turtle net system, its life has also increased. A variety of conversion furnace lining, the use of temperature of 600 ~ 1500 ℃, generally with aluminate cement refractory castable, low cement refractory castable and corundum castables, the service life of 3 to 6 years; in the nonferrous metallurgical industry, lead Zinc closed blast furnace, flash furnace, electrolyzer and rolling furnace and other thermal equipment, the local use of amorphous refractory lining. Recently, aluminum electrolytic cells are widely used anti-penetration refractory castable, and achieved satisfactory results; in the steam boiler lining, the use of amorphous refractory the earliest and most common. Generally with aluminate cement heavy or lightweight refractory castable, the service life of about 10 years. Fluidized bed power boilers with high alumina, corundum and SiC refractory castable and refractory plastic, its high strength, good wear resistance, to meet the design and use requirements. In addition, in the machinery, fire and waste incineration and other industries, but also the use of amorphous refractory materials, and achieved good results.